Original Development and Validation
The Parentification Inventory was developed in 2009 and is currently being revised. The Parentification Inventory-Revised should be available in early 2020.
Information regarding the original development and cross-validation studies of the Parentification Inventory can be found in Hooper, Doehler, Wallace, and Hannah (2011).
Other studies that report on the preliminary validity and reliability of the subscale scores can be found below and on the Publications on Parentification webpage.
The original Parentification Inventory is available for use and may be used without permission.
The original Parentification Inventory can be accessed by clicking the links below.
If you decide to use the Parentification Inventory, we would appreciate learning more about the results of your research. Please use the reference below as the citation. Hooper, L. M. (2009). Parentification Inventory. (Available form L. M. Hooper, 108 Schindler Education Center, University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, Iowa, 50614 – 0410)
Relevant Studies on Psychometric Properties of the Parentification Inventory
- Hooper, L. M., Doehler, K., Wallace, S. A., & Hannah, N. J. (2011). The Parentification Inventory: Development, validation, and cross-validation. American Journal of Family Therapy, 39, 226-241.
- Hooper, L. M., & Doehler, K. (2012). Assessing family caregiving: A comparison of three assessments of retrospective parentification. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 38, 653-666. doi: 10.1111/j.1752-0606.2011.00258.x
- Hooper, L. M., Wallace, S. A., Doehler, K., & Dantzler, J. (2012). Parentification, ethnic identity, and psychological health in Black and White American college students: Implications of family of origin and cultural factors. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 43, 811-835.
- Hooper, L. M. (2014). Assessing parentification in South American college students: A factor analytic study of a Spanish version of the Parentification Inventory. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Human Development, 42, 93-106.
- Hooper, L. M., Tomek, S., Bond, J., & Reif, M. (2015). Race/ethnicity, gender, parentification, and psychological functioning: Comparisons among a nationwide sample. The Family Journal: Counseling and Therapy for Couples and Families, 23, 33-48.
**Manuscripts in press. Please visit our website at a later time to view information related to these manuscripts, chapters, or books.