Publications on Parentification

Below is a list of selected publications Dr. Hooper and colleagues have composed on parentification and diverse outcomes. As newly published works become available, they will be added to the website.


  1. Arellano, B., Mier-Chairez, J., Tomek, S., & Hooper, L. M. (2018). Parentification and language brokering: An exploratory study of the similarities and differences in their relations to continuous and dichotomous mental health outcomes. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 40, 353‒373. doi:10.17744/mehc.40.4.07
  2. Burton, S., Hooper, L. M., Tomek, S., Cauley, B., Washington, A., & Pössel, P. (2018). The mediating effects of parentification on the relation between parenting behavior and well-being and depressive symptoms in early adolescents. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 27, 1‒16. doi:10.1007/s10826-018-1215-0
  3. Hooper, L. M. (2017). Parentification. In R. J. R. Levesque (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Adolescence (pp. 1-10) (2nd edition). New York, NY: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-321132-5_169-2
  4. Hooper, L. M. (2016). Parentification in diverse families. In J. Carlson and S. Dermer (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Marriage, Family, and Couples Counseling (pp. 1228-1231). New York, NY: Sage. doi:10.4135/9781483369532.n369
  5. Hooper, L. M., Tomek, S., Bond, J. M., & Reif, M. S. (2015). Race/ethnicity, gender, parentification, and psychological functioning: Comparisons among a nationwide sample. The Family Journal: Counseling and Therapy for Couples and Families, 23, 33‒48. doi:10.1177/1066480714547187
  6. Hooper, L. M., L’Abate, L., Sweeney, L. G., Gianesini, G., & Jankowski, P. J. (2014). Models of psychopathology: Generational processes and relational roles. New York, NY: Springer-Science. doi:10.1007/978-1-4614-8081-5
  7. Jankowski, P. J., & Hooper, L. M. (2014). Parentification and alcohol use: Conditional effects of religious service attendance. Counseling and Values, 59, 174-191.
  8. Hooper, L. M., Moore, H. M., & Smith, A. K. (2014). Parentification in military families: Overlapping constructs and theoretical explanations in family, clinical, and military psychology. Children and Youth Services Review39, 123-134. doi: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2014.02.003
  9. Hooper, L. M. (2014). Assessing parentification in South American college students: A factor analytic study of a Spanish version of the Parentification Inventory. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Human Development, 42,93-106.
  10. Hooper, L. M. (2013). Parentification. In K. D. Keith (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Cross-Cultural Psychology (pp. 965-971). Malden, MA; New York, NY: Wiley-Blackwell. doi:10.1002/9781118339893
  11. Jankowski, P., Hooper, L. M., Sandage, S., & Hannah, N. J. (2013). Parentification and mental health symptoms: mediator effects of perceived unfairness and differentiation of self. Journal of Family Therapy, 35, 43-65. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6427.2011.00574.x
  12. Hooper, L. M., Wallace, S. A., Doehler, K., & Dantzler, J. (2012). Parentification, ethnic identity, and psychological health in Black and White American college students: Implications of family of origin and cultural factors. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 36, 811-836.
  13. Hooper, L. M. (2012). Parentification. In R. Levesque (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Adolescence, (Vol. 4, pp. 2023-2031). New York, NY: Springer.
  14. Hooper, L.M., & Doehler, K. (2012). Assessing family caregiving: A comparison of three retrospective parentification measures. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy38, 653-666. doi: 10.1111/j.1752-0606.2011.00258.x
  15. Jankowski, P. J., & Hooper, L. M. (2012). Differentiation of self: A validation study of the Bowen theory construct. Couple and Family Psychology: Research and Practice, 1, 226-243. doi:10.1037/a0027469
  16. Hooper, L. M., Doehler, K., Jankowski, P., & Tomek, S. (2012). Patterns of self-reported alcohol use, body mass index, and depressive symptoms in a rural family sample: The buffering effects of parentification. The Family Journal: Counseling and Therapy for Couples and Families, 20, 164-178 doi:10.1177/1066480711435320.
  17. Hooper, L. M., DeCoster, J., White, N., & Voltz, M. L. (2011). Characterizing the magnitude of the relation between parentification and psychopathology: A meta-analysis.  Journal of Clinical Psychology67, 1028-1043. doi:10.1002/jclp.20807
  18. Hooper, L. M., Doehler, K., Wallace, S. A., & Hannah, N. J. (2011). The Parentification Inventory: Development, validation, and cross-validation. The American Journal of Family Therapy39, 226-241. doi:10.1080/01926187.2010.531652
  19. Hooper, L. M., & Wallace, S. (2010). Evaluating the Parentification Questionnaire: Psychometric properties and psychopathology correlates. Contemporary Family Therapy: An International Journal, 32, 52-68. doi:10.1007/s10591-009-9103-9
  20. Hooper, L. M., Marotta, S. A., & Depuy, V. (2009). A confirmatory factor analytic study of the posttraumatic growth inventory among a sample of racially diverse college students. Journal of Mental Health, 18, 335-343. doi:10.1080/09638230802522502
  21. Hooper, L. M. (2009). Parentification Inventory. (Available form L. M. Hooper, 108 Schindler Education Center, University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, Iowa, 50614 – 0410)
  22. Hooper, L. M., Marotta, S. A., & Lanthier, R. P. (2008). Predictors of growth and distress following childhood parentification: A retrospective exploratory study. Journal of Child & Family Studies, 17, 693-705. doi:10.1007/s10826-007-9184-8
  23. Hooper, L. M. (2008). Defining and understanding parentification: implications for all counselors. The Alabama Counseling Association Journal, 34, 34-43.
  24. Burnham, J. J., & Hooper, L. M. (2008). The influence of the war in Iraq on American youth’s fears: Implications for professional school counselors. Professional School Counseling, 11, 395-403. doi:10.5330/PSC.n.2010-11.395
  25. Hooper, L. M. (2007). Expanding the discussion regarding parentification and its varied outcomes: Implications for mental health research and practice. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 29, 322-337.
  26. Hooper, L. M. (2007). The application of attachment theory and family systems theory to the phenomena of parentification. The Family Journal, 15, 217-223. doi:10.1177/1066480707301290


Note: **Manuscripts in press. Please visit our website at a later time to view information related to these manuscripts, chapters, or books.